Citing Sources

Citing - acknowledging the intellectual property of another person from sources such as books, articles, conference proceedings, sound recordings, web sites, online databases, etc.

The style (format used to list your citations) is usually determined by the discipline or course in which you are working. Ask your instructor what style s/he requires or recommends. Side by Side Quick Guide


Style MLA: Modern Language Association
Used for Literature, Liberal arts, Humanities
Library copy Hesburgh Library Reference Desk LB 2369 .G53 2009 MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. Printed 7th ed., 2009 (other copies)
Quick guides MLA 7 Quick Style Guide (.pdf)
MLA 7 Citing Online Sources (.pdf)
MLA Footnotes - Citing within your paper (.pdf)
Style Chicago Manual of Style
Used for Arts, History, Literature, Sciences
Library copy Hesburgh Library Reference Desk Z 253 .U69 1993 Chicago Manual of Style. Printed 15th ed., 2006 (other copies)
Electronic Access: Chicago Manual of Style Online (ND-only)
Quick guides Chicago Manual of Style Citation Guide
Chicago Footnotes - Citing within your paper
Style APA: American Psychological Association
Used for Sciences, Social sciences
Library copy Hesburgh Library Reference Desk BF 76.7 .P83 2010 Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. Printed 6th ed., 2010 (other copies)
Quick guides APA 6 Style Guide (.pdf)
APA Footnotes - Citing within your paper (.pdf)
Style Turabian
Used for Humanities, Social sciences, Natural sciences
Library copy Hesburgh Library Reference Desk LB 2369 .T8 1996 Turabian, Kate. A manual for writers of term papers, theses, and dissertations. Printed 6th ed., 1996 (other copies)
Quick guides Turabian 6 Quick Guide
  • Turabian 6 Footnotes - Citing within your paper
  • Style CSE:  Council of Science Editors
    Used for Natural sciences, including Biology, Geology, Chemistry, Mathematics, and Physics
    Library copy Hesburgh Library Reference Collection T 11 .S386 2006 Scientific style and format.  Printed 7th ed., 2006
    Quick guides CSE 7 Citation Guide
    CSE 7 In-Text by Name-Year – Citing within your paper
    Style ACS:  American Chemical Society
    Used for Chemistry
    Library copy Chem/Physic Ready Reference Collection QD 8.5 .A25 1997 The ACS Style Guide. Printed 3rd. ed., 2006 (other copies)
    Quick guides ACS 3 Quick Guide
    ACS 3 Footnotes - Citing within your paper

    Formatting Tools

    RefWorks (ND-only)

    Software to easily import or add citations from many of the Hesburgh Libraries databases. Create and store bibliographies automatically in chosen style format.
    Need assistance with RefWorks? Contact us.

    Free basic online citation managers, with limited functionality:

    EasyBib, NoodleBib Express, Zotero, Bibme, Citation Machine, Source Aid, Connotea

    Other Guides for Citing Sources

    Other suggested sites? Contact us